Parse address - which should be the value of some address-containing
field such as To: or Cc: - into its constituent
realname and email address parts. Returns a tuple of that
information, unless the parse fails, in which case a 2-tuple of
(None, None) is returned.
The inverse of parseaddr(), this takes a 2-tuple of the form
(realname, email_address) and returns the string value suitable
for a To: or Cc: header. If the first element of
pair is false, then the second element is returned unmodified.
This method returns a list of 2-tuples of the form returned by
parseaddr(). fieldvalues is a sequence of header field
values as might be returned by Message.getall(). Here's a
simple example that gets all the recipients of a message:
This method encodes a string according to the rules in RFC 2047. It
is not actually the inverse of decode() since it doesn't
handle multiple character sets or multiple string parts needing
encoding. In fact, the input string s must already be encoded
in the charset character set (Python can't reliably guess what
character set a string might be encoded in). The default
charset is "iso-8859-1".
encoding must be either the letter "q" for
Quoted-Printable or "b" for Base64 encoding. If
neither, a ValueError is raised. Both the charset and
the encoding strings are case-insensitive, and coerced to lower
case in the returned string.
Attempts to parse a date according to the rules in RFC 2822.
however, some mailers don't follow that format as specified, so
parsedate() tries to guess correctly in such cases.
date is a string containing an RFC 2822 date, such as
"Mon, 20 Nov 1995 19:12:08 -0500". If it succeeds in parsing
the date, parsedate() returns a 9-tuple that can be passed
directly to time.mktime(); otherwise None will be
returned. Note that fields 6, 7, and 8 of the result tuple are not
Performs the same function as parsedate(), but returns
either None or a 10-tuple; the first 9 elements make up a tuple
that can be passed directly to time.mktime(), and the tenth
is the offset of the date's timezone from UTC (which is the official
term for Greenwich Mean Time)12.3. If the input
string has no timezone, the last element of the tuple returned is
None. Note that fields 6, 7, and 8 of the result tuple are not
Turn a 10-tuple as returned by parsedate_tz() into a UTC
timestamp. It the timezone item in the tuple is None, assume
local time. Minor deficiency: mktime_tz() interprets the
first 8 elements of tuple as a local time and then compensates
for the timezone difference. This may yield a slight error around
changes in daylight savings time, though not worth worrying about for
Note that the sign of the timezone
offset is the opposite of the sign of the time.timezone
variable for the same timezone; the latter variable follows the
POSIX standard while this module follows RFC 2822.