This module provides a standard interface to extract, format and print
stack traces of Python programs. It exactly mimics the behavior of
the Python interpreter when it prints a stack trace. This is useful
when you want to print stack traces under program control, e.g. in a
``wrapper'' around the interpreter.
The module uses traceback objects -- this is the object type
that is stored in the variables sys.exc_traceback and
sys.last_traceback and returned as the third item from
Print up to limit stack trace entries from traceback. If
limit is omitted or None, all entries are printed.
If file is omitted or None, the output goes to
sys.stderr; otherwise it should be an open file or file-like
object to receive the output.
Print exception information and up to limit stack trace entries
from traceback to file.
This differs from print_tb() in the
following ways: (1) if traceback is not None, it prints a
header "Traceback (most recent call last):"; (2) it prints the
exception type and value after the stack trace; (3) if
type is SyntaxError and value has the appropriate
format, it prints the line where the syntax error occurred with a
caret indicating the approximate position of the error.
This function prints a stack trace from its invocation point. The
optional f argument can be used to specify an alternate stack
frame to start. The optional limit and file arguments have the
same meaning as for print_exception().
Return a list of up to limit ``pre-processed'' stack trace
entries extracted from the traceback object traceback. It is
useful for alternate formatting of stack traces. If limit is
omitted or None, all entries are extracted. A
``pre-processed'' stack trace entry is a quadruple (filename,
line number, function name, text) representing
the information that is usually printed for a stack trace. The
text is a string with leading and trailing whitespace
stripped; if the source is not available it is None.
Given a list of tuples as returned by extract_tb() or
extract_stack(), return a list of strings ready for
printing. Each string in the resulting list corresponds to the item
with the same index in the argument list. Each string ends in a
newline; the strings may contain internal newlines as well, for those
items whose source text line is not None.
Format the exception part of a traceback. The arguments are the
exception type and value such as given by sys.last_type and
sys.last_value. The return value is a list of strings, each
ending in a newline. Normally, the list contains a single string;
however, for SyntaxError exceptions, it contains several lines
that (when printed) display detailed information about where the
syntax error occurred. The message indicating which exception
occurred is the always last string in the list.
Format a stack trace and the exception information. The arguments
have the same meaning as the corresponding arguments to
print_exception(). The return value is a list of strings,
each ending in a newline and some containing internal newlines. When
these lines are concatenated and printed, exactly the same text is
printed as does print_exception().
This function returns the current line number set in the traceback
object. This is normally the same as the tb.tb_lineno
field of the object, but when optimization is used (the -O flag) this
field is not updated correctly; this function calculates the correct