The debugger recognizes the following commands. Most commands can be
abbreviated to one or two letters; e.g. "h(elp)" means that
either "h" or "help" can be used to enter the help
command (but not "he" or "hel", nor "H" or
"Help" or "HELP"). Arguments to commands must be
separated by whitespace (spaces or tabs). Optional arguments are
enclosed in square brackets ("") in the command syntax; the
square brackets must not be typed. Alternatives in the command syntax
are separated by a vertical bar ("|").
Entering a blank line repeats the last command entered. Exception: if
the last command was a "list" command, the next 11 lines are
Commands that the debugger doesn't recognize are assumed to be Python
statements and are executed in the context of the program being
debugged. Python statements can also be prefixed with an exclamation
point ("!"). This is a powerful way to inspect the program
being debugged; it is even possible to change a variable or call a
function. When an
exception occurs in such a statement, the exception name is printed
but the debugger's state is not changed.
Multiple commands may be entered on a single line, separated by
";;". (A single ";" is not used as it is
the separator for multiple commands in a line that is passed to
the Python parser.)
No intelligence is applied to separating the commands;
the input is split at the first ";;" pair, even if it is in
the middle of a quoted string.
The debugger supports aliases. Aliases can have parameters which
allows one a certain level of adaptability to the context under
If a file .pdbrcexists in the user's home directory or in the current directory, it is
read in and executed as if it had been typed at the debugger prompt.
This is particularly useful for aliases. If both files exist, the one
in the home directory is read first and aliases defined there can be
overridden by the local file.
Without argument, print the list of available commands. With a
command as argument, print help about that command. "help
pdb" displays the full documentation file; if the environment variable
PAGER is defined, the file is piped through that command
instead. Since the command argument must be an identifier,
"help exec" must be entered to get help on the "!" command.
Print a stack trace, with the most recent frame at the bottom. An
arrow indicates the current frame, which determines the context of
Move the current frame one level down in the stack trace
(to an newer frame).
Move the current frame one level up in the stack trace
(to a older frame).
b(reak) [[filename:]lineno|function[, condition]]
With a lineno argument, set a break there in the current
file. With a function argument, set a break at the first
executable statement within that function.
The line number may be prefixed with a filename and a colon,
to specify a breakpoint in another file (probably one that
hasn't been loaded yet). The file is searched on sys.path.
Note that each breakpoint is assigned a number to which all the other
breakpoint commands refer.
If a second argument is present, it is an expression which must
evaluate to true before the breakpoint is honored.
Without argument, list all breaks, including for each breakpoint,
the number of times that breakpoint has been hit, the current
ignore count, and the associated condition if any.
tbreak [[filename:]lineno|function[, condition]]
Temporary breakpoint, which is removed automatically when it is
first hit. The arguments are the same as break.
cl(ear) [bpnumber [bpnumber ...]]
With a space separated list of breakpoint numbers, clear those
breakpoints. Without argument, clear all breaks (but first
disable [bpnumber [bpnumber ...]]
Disables the breakpoints given as a space separated list of
breakpoint numbers. Disabling a breakpoint means it cannot cause
the program to stop execution, but unlike clearing a breakpoint, it
remains in the list of breakpoints and can be (re-)enabled.
enable [bpnumber [bpnumber ...]]
Enables the breakpoints specified.
ignore bpnumber [count]
Sets the ignore count for the given breakpoint number. If
count is omitted, the ignore count is set to 0. A breakpoint
becomes active when the ignore count is zero. When non-zero,
the count is decremented each time the breakpoint is reached
and the breakpoint is not disabled and any associated condition
evaluates to true.
condition bpnumber [condition]
Condition is an expression which must evaluate to true before
the breakpoint is honored. If condition is absent, any existing
condition is removed; i.e., the breakpoint is made unconditional.
Execute the current line, stop at the first possible occasion
(either in a function that is called or on the next line in the
Continue execution until the next line in the current function
is reached or it returns. (The difference between "next" and
"step" is that "step" stops inside a called function, while
"next" executes called functions at (nearly) full speed, only
stopping at the next line in the current function.)
Continue execution until the current function returns.
Continue execution, only stop when a breakpoint is encountered.
l(ist) [first[, last]]
List source code for the current file. Without arguments, list 11
lines around the current line or continue the previous listing. With
one argument, list 11 lines around at that line. With two arguments,
list the given range; if the second argument is less than the first,
it is interpreted as a count.
Print the argument list of the current function.
Evaluate the expression in the current context and print its
value. (Note: "print" can also be used, but is not a debugger
command -- this executes the Python print statement.)
alias [name [command]]
Creates an alias called name that executes command. The
command must not be enclosed in quotes. Replaceable parameters
can be indicated by "%1", "%2", and so on, while "%*" is
replaced by all the parameters. If no command is given, the current
alias for name is shown. If no arguments are given, all
aliases are listed.
Aliases may be nested and can contain anything that can be
legally typed at the pdb prompt. Note that internal pdb commands
can be overridden by aliases. Such a command is
then hidden until the alias is removed. Aliasing is recursively
applied to the first word of the command line; all other words
in the line are left alone.
As an example, here are two useful aliases (especially when placed
in the .pdbrc file):
#Print instance variables (usage "pi classInst")
alias pi for k in %1.__dict__.keys(): print "%1.",k,"=",%1.__dict__[k]
#Print instance variables in self
alias ps pi self
Deletes the specified alias.
Execute the (one-line) statement in the context of
the current stack frame.
The exclamation point can be omitted unless the first word
of the statement resembles a debugger command.
To set a global variable, you can prefix the assignment
command with a "global" command on the same line, e.g.:
(Pdb) global list_options; list_options = ['-l']
Quit from the debugger.
The program being executed is aborted.