rect_in_rect - bitmap generator  for  rectangular  conductor
     inside rectangular conductor (part of atlc)


     rect_in_rect [options... ] W H a b c d w h Er1 Er2


     This man page is not a complete set  of  documentation.  See
     the  html  files for more complete information. So far, I've
     not managed to install the html files  into  /usr/local,  so
     you  will  have  to  look into the atlc-X.Y.Z/docs/html-docs
     directory for them.


     rect_in_rect is a pre-processor for atlc, the finite differ-
     ence programme that is used to calculate the properties of a
     two-conductor  electrical  transmission  line  of  arbitrary
     cross  section. The programme rect_in_rect is used as a fast
     way of generating bitmaps (there is no need to use a  graph-
     ics  programme),  for  a rectangular conductor inside a rec-
     tangular conductor, like this:

     -----------------------------------------------------  ^
     |                                                   |  |
     |     <--------------d------------------->          |  |
     |                                                   |  |
     |         <----------w----------->                  |  |
     |         ------------------------   ^              |  |
     |         |                      |   |              |  |
     |         |  Metallic conductor  |   |              |  H
     |<----b-->|  conductor (can be   |   c   Er1        |  |
     |         |  off-centre)         |   |              |  |
     |         |                      |   |              |  |
     |     ------------------------------------ ^        |  |
     |     |..................................| |        |  |
     |     |...Dielectric, permittivity=Er2...| |        |  |
     |<-a->|.....(can be off centre ).........| h        |  |
     |     |..................................| |        |  |
     |     |..................................| |        |  |
     -----------------------------------------------------  |

     The parameters 'W' and 'H' and the inner dimensions  of  the
     outer  conductor.  The outer dimensions of the inner conduc-
     tor are 'w' and 'c'. The inner conductor is assumed to  rest
     on  a dielectric (Er2) which is 'd' wide and outer conductor
     an the inner conductor is offset  'b'  from  the  left  hand
     sidewall  of  the  outer conductor. The whole region is sur-
     rounded by a dielectric of relative permittivity 'Er1'.  The
     dielectrics 'Er1' and then 'Er1' and 'Er2' will both be 1.0

     The bitmap is printed to standard output, which MUST be  re-
     directed  to either a file, or piped into the standard input
     of atlc, in one of the following two ways.

     rect_in_rect W H a b c d w h Er1 Er2 > filename.bmp OR
     rect_in_rect -f filename.bmp W H a b c d w h Er1 Er2

     The bitmaps produced by rect_in_rect are 24-bit  bit  colour
     bitmaps, as are required by atlc.

     The permittivities of the bitmap, set by  'Er1'  and  'Er2',
     determine  the  colours in the bitmap. If Er1 or Er2 is 1.0,
     2.1, 2.2, 2.33, 2.5, 3.3,  3.335,  4.8  or  10.2,  then  the
     colour  corresponding  to  that  permittivity  will  be  set
     according to the colours defined in COLOURS below. If Er1 is
     not  one of those permittivities, the region of permittivity
     Er1 will be set to the colour 0xCAFF00. If Er2 is not one of
     those  values,  then  the region of the image will be set to
     the colour 0xAC82AC. The programme atlc does not  know  what
     these permittivites are, so they atlc, must be told with the
     comand line option -d, as in example 4 below.


     -b bitmapsize
     is used to set the size of the bitmap, and so  the  accuracy
     to  which  atlc is able to calculate the transmission line's
     properties. The default value for 'bitmapsize'  is  normally
     4,  although  this  is set at compile time. The value can be
     set anywhere from 1 to 15, but more than 8 is  probably  not

     -f outfile
     Set the output filename. By default, the bitmap is  sent  to
     stdout,  but  it *must* be sent to a file, with this option,
     or as described above.

     Causes rect_in_rect to print  some  data  to  stderr.  Note,
     nothing  extra  goes to standard output, as that is expected
     to be redirected to a bitmap file.


     The 24-bit bitmaps that atlc expects, have 8  bits  assigned
     to  represent the amount of red, 8 for blue and 8 for green.
     Hence there are 256 levels of red, green and blue, making  a
     total of 256*256*256=16777216 colours. Every one of the pos-
     sible 16777216 colours can be defined precisely by the stat-
     ing the exact amount of red, green and blue, as in:

     red         = 255,000,000 or 0xff0000
     green       = 000,255,000 or 0x00ff00
     blue        = 000,000,255 or 0x0000ff
     black       = 000,000,000 or 0x000000
     white       = 255,255,255 or 0xffffff
     Brown       = 255,000,255 or 0xff00ff
     gray        = 142,142,142 or 0x8e8e8e

     Some colours, such as pink, turquiose,  sandy,  brown,  gray
     etc  may mean slightly different things to different people.
     This is not so with  atlc,  as  the  programme  expects  the
     colours  below  to  be EXACTLY defined as given. Whether you
     feel the colour is sandy or yellow is up to you, but if  you
     use  it  in your bitmap, then it either needs to be a colour
     recognised by atlc, or you must define  it  with  a  command
     line option (see OPTIONS and example 5 below).
     red    = 255,000,000 or 0xFF0000 is the live conductor.
     green  = 000,255,000 or 0x00FF00 is the grounded conductor.
     blue   = 000,000,000 or 0x0000FF is the negative conductor

     All bitmaps must have the live (red)  and  grounded  (green)
     conductor.  The  blue  conductor is not currently supported,
     but it will be used to indicate a negative conductor,  which
     will  be  needed  if/when  the  programme  gets  extended to
     analyse directional couplers.

     The following dielectrics are recognised by atlc and so  are
     produced by rect_cen_in_rect.

     white     255,255,255 or 0xFFFFFF as Er=1.0    (vacuum)
     pink      255,202,202 or 0xFFCACA as Er=1.0006 (air)
     L. blue   130,052,255 or 0x8235EF as Er=2.1    (PTFE)
     Mid gray  142,242,142 or 0x8E8E8E as Er=2.2    (duroid 5880)
     mauve     255.000,255 or 0xFF00FF as Er=2.33  (polyethylene)
     yellow    255,255,000 or 0xFFFF00 as Er=2.5    (polystyrene)
     sandy     239,203,027 or 0xEFCC1A as Er=3.3    (PVC)
     brown     188,127,096 or 0xBC7F60 as Er=3.335  (epoxy resin)
     Terquoise 026,239,179 or 0x1AEFB3 as Er=4.8    (glass PCB)
     Dark gray 142,142,142 or 0x696969 as Er=6.15   (duroid 6006)
     L. gray   240,240,240 or 0xDCDCDC as Er=10.2  (duroid 6010)
     D. orange 213,160,067 or 0xD5A04D as  Er=100.0  (mainly  for
     test purposes)


     Here are a few examples of the use of  rect_in_rect.  Again,
     see   the   html   documentation   in  atlc-X.Y.Z/docs/html-
     docs/index.html for more examples.

     In the first example, there is just an  air  dielectric,  so
     Er1=Er2=1.0.   The inner of 1x1 inches (or mm, miles etc) is
     placed centrally in an outer with dimensions 3 x 3 inches.

     The exact place where the  dielectric  starts  (a)  and  its
     width (d) are unimportant, but they must still be entered.
     % rect_in_rect 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 > ex1.bmp
     % atlc ex1.bmp

     In this second example, an inner of 15.0 mm x 0.5 mm is sur-
     rounded  by an outer with internal dimensions of 61.5 x 20.1
     mm. There is a material with permittivity 2.1 (Er  of  PTFE)
     below  the  inner conductor. The output from rect_in_rect is
     sent to a file ex1.bmp, which is then processed by atlc

     % rect_in_rect 61.5 20.1 5 22 0.5 50 15 5 1.0 2.1 > ex2.bmp
     % atlc ex2.bmp

     In example 3, the bitmap is made larger, to  increase  accu-
     racy, but otherwise this is identical to the second example.
     % rect_in_rect -b7 61.5 20.1 5 22 0.5 50  15  5  1.0  2.1  >
     % atlc ex3.bmp

     In the fourth example, materials with permittivites 2.78 and
     7.89  are  used.  While  there  is  no  change in how to use
     rect_in_rect, since these permittivities are not  known,  we
     must tell atlc what they are.

     % rect_in_rect 61 20 1 4 22 0.5 50 15 5 2.78 7.89 >  ex5.bmp
     % atlc -d CAFF00=2.78 -d AC82AC=7.89 ex5.bmp

     In the sixth and final example, the -v  option  is  used  to
     print some extra data to stderr from rect_in_rect.


     atlc(1),        rect_cen_in_rect(1),        circ_in_circ(1).
     rect_in_circ(1),  circ_in_rect(1).   rect_in_circ(1),  read-
     bin(1) and sym_strip(1).                - Home page       - Download area
     atlc-X.Y.Z/docs/html-docs/index.html       - HTML docs
     atlc-X.Y.Z/docs/qex-december-1996/atlc.pdf - theory paper
     atlc-X.Y.Z/examples                        - examples              - my home page          - ham radio pages

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